Spanish History – 1.2Mil BC to 976 1.2Mil BC Evidence was discovered in 2007 by Spanish researchers who said they had unearthed a human tooth more than one million years old, the oldest human fossil remain ever discovered in western Europe. 41000BC Cannibalism in Asturias. Discovered in 2006 at the El Sidron cave in the Asturias region. 12000 BC Evidence of Stone Age hunters from paintings on cave walls near Santander. 1100 BC Southern Iberia colonized by Phonecians. 800BC Influenced by the Phoenicians and Greeks, the Tartesses culture develops in Western Andalusia, trading in oil, textiles and metals. 500-500BC The Greeks established settlements in NE Spain that included Emporio. 228 BC Carthaginians occupy southern Iberia. 218-220 BC Romans invade Iberian Peninsula in Second Punic War. Emporio was called by the Romans Emporiae. It later came to be called Empuries 53 Marcus Trajanus (d.117), 13th Roman emperor (Trajan’s Arch) (98-117), was born at Italica near Seville, Spain. 74 Roman citizenship given to all inhabitants of Iberia. 237 Carthage invades the Iberian Peninsula. 346 Theodosius was born in Spain. He served as emperor East Roman Republic 379-395. 400AD The Vandals invade Spain from Germany. 466 The Visigoths invade Spain from Gaul after being pushed out of their homeland by the Franks. 633 The 4th Synod of Toledo took on the right to confirm elected kings. Jews were obliged to be baptized. The vernacular language, of Latin origin, prevailed over that of the Visigoths. 694 King Egica accused Jews of aiding Moslems and sentenced them to slavery. 711 Iberia invaded by Muslim army. The Muslim troops crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigoth king Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete. Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal. The word Gibraltar comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik means “Rock of Tarik.” 712 Muza ben-Nosair completed the Muslim conquest of Spain. The Visigothic period ended. 756 Abd-al-Rahman was proclaimed the emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the Umayyad forces in Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Córdoba capital of new independent Emirate. 778 At the Battle at Roncesvalles the Basques beat Charlemagne. 813 Pelayo to Santiago, a Spanish hermit, discovered the long-forgotten tomb of the apostle St. James (San Tiago). This led others to make pilgrimages across northern Spain to the city of Santiago de Compostela. 842 Alfonso II the Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. 913 Christians set up capital in Leon after retaking northern territories. 976 The Great Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and educational centre. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to satisfy the citizen’s literary appetites.