Spanish History – 1013 to 1797 1013 Spain separated into small kingdoms. 1075 The 3rd Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th century. 1085 Christian kingdom takes over Toledo. 1094 Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar [El Cid] occupied Valencia on the Moren. 1118 Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain. 1137 Kingdom of Aragon formed. 1158 Sancho III, King of Castilia, died. 1160-63 Al-Andalus controlled by Muslim sect. 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa . Reconquista eliminates Moorish rule in Spain. 1218 The university at Salamanca, Spain, was founded by King Alfonso IX. 1227 Construction of the Gothic Cathedral in Toledo was begun. 1236 Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba in Spain. Cordoba, Spain, fell to Christian forces. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada. 1238 James of Aragon retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs. 1248 Fernando 3rd invades Seville forcing the Muslims to retreat. 1340 Battle of Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back. 1391 Mob led by Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery. Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews. Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred. 1424 Don Alfonso V of Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews. 1431 Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol was born in Xativa, Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based “The Prince” on him. 1451 Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus, was born in Madrigal, Spain. 1452 Ferdinand II, the Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and Sicily (1468-1516), was born. He bankrolled Columbus and expelled Jews. 1455 Jews fled Spain. 1460 Ponce de Leon was born in Spain. He searched for fountain of youth and found Florida. 1469 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile marry, bringing much needed stability. 1471 Henry IV of Castile issued copper coins of small denominations known as blancas. 1474 Bartolome de Las Casas, “Apostle to the Indians,” was born in Seville, Spain. 1478 Queen Isabel and Fernando set up the Spanish inquisition to enable the crown to control the inquiries into whether or not converted Jews were really secret “Judaizers” who kept their original faith. 1479 After four years of war, Spain agreed to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along Africa’s west coast and Portugal acknowledged Spain’s rights in the Canary Islands. 1481 The first burnings of people occurred as a result of the Inquisition trials. Over the period 1481-1530 some 2000 people were burned. 1486 In Toledo, some 750 lapsed Christians were paraded through the streets of Toledo from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral in order to be reconciled to the Christian faith. Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella to fund expedition to the West Indies. 1492 Under the supervision of the Catholic Church. Jews are ordered to be baptised or leave Spain. Many Jews flee from Spain leaving a shortage of educated and skilled people. The last Moorish kingdom, Granada, is captured by a united Spain. Christopher Columbus began his voyages of discovery. 1493 Christopher Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a flotilla of 17 ships on his 2nd voyage to the Western Hemisphere. 1498 Columbus departed Spain with 6 ships for his 3rd trip to America. He took 30 women along on his third trip to the New World. 1499 The Spanish play “Celestine” was published. 1500 Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. 1502 Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion. Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas. 1503 Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain. Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians. 1504 Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks. Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died. 1506 Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Valladolid, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. 1508 The Spanish introduce sugarcane to the New World (renamed America in 1507). By 1523 some 24 mills operate on Hispaniola, and the crop soon becomes a major export from the Caribbean. 1511 Diego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba. 1513 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. 1514 Spanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba. 1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama. 1516 Seville University was founded. The Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain. 1517 King Carlos 1st becomes the first Habsburg king of Spain. Carlos is also king of Austria, much of Italy and the South American colonies. Carlos rules until 1556. 1518 Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded. 1521 French king Francois I declared war on Spain. The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona. 1522 Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches. Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru. 1523 The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors. 1527 German and Spanish troops under Charles V began ransacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed, Pope Clement VII was captured and thousands were killed. Philip II (d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. 1528 England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. 1529 Spain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa. 1533 Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo. 1536 The Argentine city of Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain. France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain. 1539 Hernando De Soto claimed Florida for Spain. 1542 New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America. 1547 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was born, at Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. Writer of “The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha” 1554 Queen Mary of England married Philip II, king of Spain and the Catholic son of Emp. Charles V. 1556 Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller, which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera “Don Carlos.” Philip II, was crowned king of Spain. 1557 Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino). The world’s first sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare. 1558 Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France. 1560 Spanish king Philip II married Elisabeth de Valois. 1561 Philip II moved his court to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain. 1566 Spanish king Philip II named Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alba. 1570 Spain’s King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students. 1571 Spanish troops occupied Manila. 1572 The Spanish army under Duke of Alva’s son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen (Flanders). The Dutch town of Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of Alba. The town was then burned and the entire population massacred. 1574 Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege. Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards. 1577 Painter El Greco born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled there permanently in Toledo. 1578 Philip III, king of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621), was born. 1580 Spain defeated Portugal in the Battle of Alcantara. Spanish troops landed in Ireland. The Duke of Alba invaded Portugal and put it under Spain’s rule. Spain’s Philip II was proclaimed King Philip I of Portugal and united the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal. 1582 The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal. 1587 Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet. 1588 The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England. 1595 Henry IV’s army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise. 1596 An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and ransacked Cadiz, Spain. The Spanish fleet sailed from Lisbon to Ireland. 1598 Philip II , King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller armadas, but they all failed. 1602 Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beat the Spanish. 1604 After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch. 1605 Philip IV king of Spain and Portugal (1621-65), was born. 1609 Spanish ships began visiting Japan and Spanish Dominicans began missionary work. 1616 Miguel de Cervantes , Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid. 1622 A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa Margarita, sank by a hurricane, was discovered off of Key West in 1980. 1634 Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants. 1635 Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain. 1640 Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of Portugal. 1643 A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi /Allersheim in France. 1648 The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster. 1649 In Seville one in three died of the Black Plague. 1657 France and England formed an alliance against Spain. 1679 Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died. 1683 Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born in Versailles, France. 1689 French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain. 1697 The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo. 1699 The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church. 1702 The War of Spanish Succession began. Bourbon dynasty accepts Spanish throne. 1704 Admiral George Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish. 1705 The English Navy captured Barcelona in Spain. 1707 At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese. 1713 Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht. 1739 England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. 1762 The British captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege. The British fleet bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines. France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana. 1766 France handed its settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain. 1779 Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England. 1782 The British fortress at Gibraltar came under attack by French and Spanish forces. 1783 Spain recognized United States’ independence. 1797 The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.