Spanish History – 1800 to 1899 1800 Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty. 1805 The Spanish naval fleet is defeated by Lord Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar. The Spanish fleet is hugely diminished and Spain never regains naval power. 1808-14 The Peninsular War began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal. Spain’s King Charles IV abdicated. Napoleon’s brother Joseph took the throne of Spain. The citizens of Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid’s central square. The Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the Prado promenade in reprisal. 1810 Argentina declared independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain. Colombia declared independence from Spain. Chile declared its independence from Spain. US annexed West Florida from Spain. 1811 Paraguay gained independence from Spain (Nat’l Day). 1812 English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain. British troops under the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This prompted Wellington to call his troops “the scum of the earth.” British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte. 1818 The last prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition was held. 1819 Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida. Spain’s Prado opened as the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura. 1833 King Ferdinand of Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella. 1836 Spain recognized the independence of Mexico. 1852 Antoni Gaudi, Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona), was born. 1857 Banco Santander was founded in Spain to finance trade between the port city of Santander and Latin America. 1859 Spain declared war on the Moors in Morocco. 1881 Pablo Picasso (d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga. 1886 Spain abolished slavery in Cuba. 1898 Spanish-American five-month War; Spain losses colonies including Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico. 1899 A peace treaty between the United States and Spain was ratified by the U.S. Senate. Spanish-American War ended.