Spanish Population In recent years the resident population in Spain has begun an unexpected recovery. At the beginning of the 1990s, demographers and other experts announced that the population showed a tendency to decline and that the figure of 40 million inhabitants would therefore not be reached in the short term. However, the massive influx of immigrants has overturned these projections and the resident population in Spain has not only broken through the 40 million threshold but now, at the beginning of the 21st century, continues to grow. In fact, according to the official figures from the municipal registers, for the first time ever Spain’s resident population has surpassed the 44 million mark. Hence, on 1 January 2005, Spain was home to 44,108,530 people, of whom 3,730,610 were non-nationals. This barrier of 44 million inhabitants was overcome when the resident population in Spain rose by 910,846 in 2004 – a record growth since population data began to be collected. In relative terms, the annual increase was 2.1%. This strong growth in the number of inhabitants is mainly explained by the 696,284 foreign citizens who enrolled on the municipal register, representing 76.4% of the total population growth in Spain. The figure for new enrolments by Spanish nationals was 214,562. By gender, 50.6% of the resident population in Spain are women and 49.4% men. By age, 15.2% of the people registered are under the age of 16, 44.8% are aged between 16 and 44, and 40% are over 45 years old.