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Spanish History – 1800 to 1899

Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.

The Spanish naval fleet is defeated by Lord Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar. The Spanish fleet is hugely diminished and Spain never regains naval power.

The Peninsular War began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
Spain’s King Charles IV abdicated.
Napoleon’s brother Joseph took the throne of Spain.
The citizens of Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid’s central square. The Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the Prado promenade in reprisal.

Argentina declared independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain.
Colombia declared independence from Spain.
Chile declared its independence from Spain.
US annexed West Florida from Spain.

Paraguay gained independence from Spain (Nat’l Day).
English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.
British troops under the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This prompted Wellington to call his troops “the scum of the earth.”
British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte.

The last prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition was held.
Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida.
Spain’s Prado opened as the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura.
King Ferdinand of Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella.
Spain recognized the independence of Mexico.
Antoni Gaudi, Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona), was born.
Banco Santander was founded in Spain to finance trade between the port city of Santander and Latin America.

Spain declared war on the Moors in Morocco.
Pablo Picasso (d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga.
Spain abolished slavery in Cuba.

Spanish-American five-month War; Spain losses colonies including Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico.
A peace treaty between the United States and Spain was ratified by the U.S. Senate. Spanish-American War ended.

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